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21-Apr-2016 20:01

Ayer's defense is that all ethical disputes are about facts regarding the proper application of a value system to a specific case, not about the value systems themselves, because any dispute about values can only be resolved by judging that one value system is superior to another, and this judgment itself presupposes a shared value system.If Moore is wrong in saying that there are actual disagreements of value, we are left with the claim that there are actual disagreements of fact, and Ayer accepts this without hesitation: If our opponent concurs with us in expressing moral disapproval of a given type t, then we may get him to condemn a particular action A, by bringing forward arguments to show that A is of type t.It stands in opposition to other forms of non-cognitivism (such as quasi-realism and universal prescriptivism), as well as to all forms of cognitivism (including both moral realism and ethical subjectivism). Emotivism reached prominence in the early 20th century, but it was born centuries earlier.In the 1950s, emotivism appeared in a modified form in the universal prescriptivism of R. In 1710, George Berkeley wrote that language in general often serves to inspire feelings as well as communicate ideas.Do so as well." For Stevenson, moral disagreements may arise from different fundamental attitudes, different moral beliefs about specific cases, or both.The methods of moral argumentation he proposed have been divided into three groups, known as logical, rational psychological and nonrational psychological forms of argumentation.The approbation or blame which then ensues, cannot be the work of the judgement, but of the heart; and is not a speculative proposition or affirmation, but an active feeling or sentiment. Moore was a cognitivist, but his case against ethical naturalism steered other philosophers toward noncognitivism, particularly emotivism. Ayer's defense of positivism in Language, Truth and Logic, which contains his statement of emotivism.

Having argued that his theory of ethics is noncognitive and not subjective, he accepts that his position and subjectivism are equally confronted by G. Moore's argument that ethical disputes are clearly genuine disputes and not just expressions of contrary feelings.They "back it up," or "establish it," or "base it on concrete references to fact." The purpose of these supports is to make the listener understand the consequences of the action they are being commanded to do.



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